The Psychology Behind Development


From Birth to Death: A Look at Conflicts and Accomplishments


By: Joe Jendrus

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Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development

Stage
Age
Erogenous Zones
Major Developmental Task
(Potential Source of Conflict)
Adult Characteristics of Children Fixated at Stage
Oral
0-1
Mouth, lips, tounge
Weaning
Oral behavior, overeating, smoking; passivity and gullibility
Anal
1-3
Anus
Toilet training
Orderliness, parsimoniousness, obstinacy, or the opposite
Phallic
3-6
Genitals
Oedipus/Electra complexes
Vanity, recklessness, or the opposite
Latency
6-11
No Specific area
Development of defense mechanisms
None: fixation does not normally occur at this stage
Genital
11-18
Genitals
Mature sexual intimacy
Should emerge with a sincere interest in others and a mature sexuality
if integration of earlier stages was successful



Erickson's Psychosocial Stages of Development
That better be water in that glass, Mr. Erikson
That better be water in that glass, Mr. Erikson

Stage
Basic Conflict
Important Events
Outcome (Adequate vs. Inadequate Resolution)
Infancy (birth to 18 months)
Trust vs. mistrust
Feeding
Basic sense of safety vs. Insecurity, anxiety
Early Childhood (2-3 years)
Autonomy vs. self-doubt
Toilet training
Perception of self as agent capable of controlling own body and external events
vs. Feelings of inadequacy to control events
Preschool (3-5 years)
Initiative vs. guilt
Exploration
Confidence in oneself as initiator, creator vs. Feelings of lack of self-worth
School Age (6-11 years)
Competence vs. inferiority
School
Adequacy in basic social and intellectual skills vs. Lack of self-confidence, feelings of failure
Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Identity vs. role confusion
Social Relationships
Comfortable sense of self as a person vs. Sense of self as fragmented
Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)
Intimacy vs. isolation
Relationships
Capacity for closeness and commitment to another vs. Feeling of aloneness, separation
Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Generativity vs. stagnation
Work and Parenthood
Focus of concern beyond oneself to others in society vs. Self-indulgent concerns
Maturity (65 to death)
Ego integrity vs. despair
Reflection on life
Sense of wholeness and satisfaction with life vs. Disappointment

Age
General Accomplishments
1 Month
Hand to mouth reflex, grasping reflex, rooting reflex (turning cheek toward touch), Moro reflex (digital extension when startled), sucking reflex, Babinski reflex (toes spread when sole of foot is touched). Visual tracking. Differentiation of sounds.
2 Months
Eyes follow moving person and rattle, smiles when stimulated, head bobbing.
3 Months
Coos and chuckles, eyes follow moving objects all planes, searches for sound with eyes, actively holds rattle placed in hand.
4 Months
Rolls over both ways, laughs, puts toys to mouth.
5 Months
Squeals, finger play, brings hand to mid-line.
6 Months
Sits with assistance, talks to toys spontaneously, reaches out grasping toys with one hand.
7 Months
Vowel sounds in a series, bangs table with toy, transfers from hand to hand, sits briefly placed on hard surface.
8 Months
Consonant sounds, handles toy in each hand, pivots prone using arms, sits alone steadily.
9 Months
Bangs 2 toys together, pulls self to standing, stands supported, craws or creeps on hands and knees.
10 Months
Waves "bye", plays hand games, says "dada" or "mama", explores toy.
11 Months
Holds out toy but doesn't let go, walks around furniture, walks with both hands held, stands alone.
12 Months
Understands some limited basic commands, says a couple words, walks with one hand held.
2-3 years
Walks alone, builds things, names pictures, reproductive memory, growth of language, motor skills such as balance developing.