Stages of Development
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Erik Erikson's stages of development
Stage
Description
Oral-Sensory
Birth to one year of age. This stage focuses on the idea of trust versus mistrust. This is a crucial stage for developing babies because this is the basis for the realtionships they will encounter in their lives. If a baby is given the means to survive by a caregiver, they will develop a sense of trust. On the other hand, if a child is deprived of affection and food the baby will form a sense of mistrust that will leave him timid and withdrawn.
Muscular- Anal
1 year to 3 years of age. The main concept of this stage is autonomy versus shame and doubt. During this stage the child learns to walk, talk, hold on and let go of object, and talk. Shame occurs in a child when the child is self-conscious due to negative exposure from the caregiver. A child develops self-doubt when the caregiver overly shame the child.
Locomotor Genital
3 to 5 years of age. During this stage the main concept is initiative versus guilt. During this stage the child desires to mimic the adult world, this is where the oedipus complex starts to arise (Freudian concept). Sibling rivalry also starts to arise during this age. The initiative arises with physical and mental activity. Guilt may arise over goals that are contemplated.
Latency
6 to 11 years of age. This is most busy. They are building, creating, and accomplishing many aspects in their lives. This is where the child starts to become conscious of their peers.
Adolescence
11 years and through end of adolescence. This is where the adolescent starts to struggle to develop a sense of inner sameness. The teenager is preoccupied with ideology and his/her own personal apperance due to the development of peers. This is where role confusion and doubs about sexual identity are most common and where psychosocial moratorium is present. Psychosocial moratorium is a stage between morality learned by the child and the ethics to be developed by the adult.
Adulthood
Nothing particularly exciting happens during the Erickson's stage of adulthood. During early adulthood the main concept is intimacy versus isolation. During middle adulthood the main concept is generativity versus self-absorption.
Maturity
The main concept during this stage is integrity versus despair.

Sigmund Freud's stages of development
Phase
Description
Oral
Birth to 8 months of age. Freud believed that the oral stage was a means for a child to fulfill his/her sexual urges. The infant recieves gratification from oral stimuli such as eating, sucking, biting, and swallowing. During this phase a child is often nicknamed a "bundle of id" because the child's personality is controlled by the id, demanding instant gratification.
Anal
2-3 years of age. This is the phase where the child learns that they can defecate when ever they wants. This leads the child to develop an ego, and they come to the conslusion that they cannot always do what they want and when they want because there are certain times for certain behaviors. The act of going to the bathroom is pleasurable to the child.
Phallic
2-6 years of age. This is where the child starts to manipulate their genitals. Freud believed that this is where the Oedipus and Electra Complexs arise. The Oedipus complex is where a male child has sexual feelings for his mother and wants to kill the father. The Electra complex is where a female child develops sexual feelings for the father and wants to kill the mother. Eventually the children grow out of this phase and they begin to identify with the parent of their own sex.
Latency
6-11 years of age. This is where the child begins to emulate the behavior of the parent of the same sex. They imitate behaviors such as speech, gestures, mannerisms, and beliefs. The child also begins to create their own beliefs and values and incorporates them into his culture. The super-ego is also developing to a greater extent and the child learns to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior in their own society. Also during this phase the child seeks playmates of their own sex.
Genital
11-18 years of age. This is the phase where an infatuation with one's genitals arises. In the beginning of the genital phase the individual seeks connections with members of the same sex. These homosexual connections are stronger in the genital phase than in the latency period. Eventually the child makes forms relationshops with members of the opposite sex. (Not something I completely agree with). Also during this time the superego undergoes further development and the individual accepts some norms and makes exceptions to others.
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