Phases of Development



Freud's Oral Stage
Erickson's Oral-Sensory Stage
0-8 months. This stage is the focus of pleasure
received from stimuli directed towards the mouth.
Most obvious forms include eating and breast
feeding. Children of this age are controlled by their
id and demand instant gratification to please their
sexual urges.
birth-1 year. This first stage, the Oral Sensory stage, is
characterized by the basic trust or mistrust a child forms
based on its experiences with basic life functions (eating,
sleeping, bowel movements). If an infant consistently has
its needs met and receives affection, it will form a sense
of trust. If the child forms a sense of mistrust, it will be
more timid later in life, and will give up more easily on its
Freud's Anal Stage
Erickson's Muscular-Anal Stage
8 months-2 years. The anal stage is characterized by
the pleasure a child gets from defecating. Infants in
this stage defecate often to receive pleasure, but
eventually learn that this puts them in conflict with the
mother,therefore, the child develops and ego and
abides bythe mother's wishes.
1-3 years. Child learns to walk, feed itself, and talk.
Child starts to seek autonomy, yet is greatly affected by
feedback given from parents. If a child is criticized often,
it will feel self conscious or have self doubt.
Phallic Stage
2-6 years. First signs of masturbation via manipulation
of genitals. Oedipus complex is seen as the boy
child desires his mother and hates his father. Girls
suffer from the Electra complex, which is the belief that
they once had a penis, but it was removed, and the
only way to compensate is to have a child by their own
Frued's Latency Stage
Erickson's Locomotor-Genital
6-11 years. Latency stage.
Child's relationship with same sex parent
intensifies, and the child begins to imitate his or her
behavior. Children seek playmates of the same sex.
3-5 years. The Locomotor-Genital stage is the period of
time when initiative arises in relation for the sake of mental
and physical activity. These children will also experience
feelings of guilt, especially if their goals involve aggression.
There is also frequent sibling rivalry and the desire to mimic
adult life.
Freud's Genital Stage
Erickson's Latency Stage
11-18 years. The genital stage is the longest of the
five stages. Pleasure is again found through the
excretion of bodily fluids or materials. The super
ego develops, and children form relationships.
6-11 years. The child spends much of his or her time building
creating, or accomplishing goals. This is a socially decisive
age, these children are constantly worried about their social
status in terms of their skills and abilities as compared to
those of others.
11-18 years. Adolescents struggle to find or accept their own
identity. They are preoccupied with both how they are
perceived by peers based on appearence, and their ideals and
heroes. Other struggles of teens include sexual identity, and
the conflict between childhood morality and adult morality.
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Developmental Achievements

One Month
Infants have the ability to focus on one object in their line of vision (8 inches). They can lift their head briefly, and reduce their activity level when spoken to. They also have basic reflexes such as a sucking reflex, a basic grab reflex, and a babinski reflex (spreading toes when sole of foot is touched). They can differentiate between sour and sweet tastes, and between a human voice versus other sounds.
Two Months
In this month, an infant's eyes can follow a person as they move about, and socially smiles when stimulated. These infants lift their heads more often and can sometimes sit with support.
Three Months
At three months, many of the previously acquired skills are improved. For example, and infant can now lift its head up to a 45 degree angle and can sustain this position for a period of time. The infants follow the direction of sounds and can follow the movement of all objects. At this point infants start to coo and chuckle.
Four Months
Babies can roll in any direction at four months. They laugh aloud and put toys in their mouth. They can also lift up their heads and chests high.
Five Months
When infants are pulled to a sitting position (by the caretaker), their heads no longer lag behind. Now they squeal and play with fingers.
Six Months
Six month old infants "talk" to toys spontaneously, can sit with support, and can grasp objects with one hand.
Seven Months
Infants of seven months can string vowel sounds together, and briefly sit on hard surfaces. When playing, these babies often transfer toys from hand to hand or bang them on hard surfaces, such as a table.
Eight Months
These infants can now vocalize the consonant sounds "da, ba, ka". There is also much major and minor physical development. For example, these infants can sit alone, turn using arms, hold objects in both hands simultaneously, and attempt to pick up small objects (crumbs) with thumb and first two fingers.
Nine Months
At nine months, babies can stand with support, pull themselves to a standing position, crawl, pinch a small object between the thumb and forefinger, and bang two toys together.
Ten Months
The tenth month is also important for infants, as they can now say both mama and dada, can wave goodbye or "play" patty-cake, and explore different aspects of toys.
Eleven Months
Infants can now stand alone, walk with support of furniture or hand holding, and hold out toys (but won't let go).
Twelve Months
At one year of life, these infants can say two other words along with mama and dada, understand the phrase "give it to me", can walk with one hand being held, and can dangle toys by a string.
After the First Year
Some of the basic developments of the next two years are as follows:
13-14 months: Walk alone
15 months: Put toys together (i.e. a two block tower).
16-18 months: continues to learn new words, and can verbally label a picture.
19-24 months: there is evidence of reproductive memory.
25-30 months: further language development, notably, the development of personal pronouns.
31-42 months: more motor skills are developed, particularly tip toeing and balancing.