Babies After Birth
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Erikson

Various Stages

Explanations

Oral-Sensory Stage
Birth-one year

This stage is the trust vs mistrust stage of infants. During this stage infants are almost completely
dependent on someone else for their needs. If the needs that the infant desires are met,then the
infant will develop a sense of trust within the individual.Not only that, but he will also develop a
sense of trust with in others, himself, and in the ability to handle his needs. However, if the
needs are met and is given little love, then the sense of mistrust will be developed. If this
mistrust is constant then the child will become timid and become withdrawn since he will have
given up on achieving his goals.
Muscular-Anal Stage
One-Three years

This stage is the conflict of autonomy vs shame and doubt. During this stage children learn to
walk, feed themselves, and talk. Their muscles begin to develop which leads them to beginning
able to hold on and let go of things. Their need for outer control begins to develop and so does
the firmness of caretaker, prior to development of autonomy. Shame then starts to occur when the
child is overly self conscious via negative exposure. Self-doubt begins to evolve if the parents
overly shame the child about elimination.
Locomotor-Genital Stage
Three-Five years

This stage's conflict is initative vs guilt. During this stage, initiative arises in relation to tasks for the
sake of activity that is both motor and intellectual. The guilt could begin to arise if the child
contemplates goals, especially aggressive. They have a desire to mimic the adult world. Involvement
in oedipal struggle leads to resolution via social role identification. Also during this stage,sibling rivalry
is not uncommon and is usually frequent.
Latency Stage
Six-Eleven years

During this stage the child is busy creating, building, and accomplishing many types of tasks. They
receive a systematic instruction as well as fundamentals for technology. If a child despairs his tools
and skills and status among peers then the child may feel a sense of inadequacy and inferiority. Also
during this stage there is the aspect of socially decisive age.
Adolescence
11 years through the rest of adolescence

During this stage many kids begin with the struggles of trying to develop ego identify. This is a sense
of inner sameness and continuity. They become preoccupied with appearance, hero worship, and
ideology. Group identity begins to develop amongst them. Not to mention these kids are faced with
the danger of role confusion and doubts about sexual and vocational activity.


Freud

Various Stages

Explanation

Oral Phase
Birth-8 months

This stage is categorized by the infants need for something in their month and the gratification they get
from it. The most obvious oral activity that kids engage in that they receive pleasure from is eating. Oral
stimulation is produced by engaging in activities like sucking, biting, swallowing, and etc.Freud concluded
that these activities are a way of children fulfilling their sexual urges. Eros (the life instinct) makes its
appearance but Thanatos (the death instinct) is also seen quite frequently. Children also seem to destroy
objects they come in contact with, by biting. During this stage, the child's personality is controlled by
the id. He demands gratification when he wants where he wants.
Anal Phase
Two-Three years

This stage is one where the child's central body area of concern in the rectum. Bowel movement become
the source of pleasure to the child. However, this brings the child in conflict with their parents which leads
to the child developing his ego. He comes to realize that he cannot always do what he wants when he
wants, which leads to him realizing that there are certain times to do certain things. Gradually he begins
to understand his mother's wishes and abide by them.
Phallic Phase
Two-Six years

During this stage, sexual gratification becomes more erotic as evidence by the child's masturbation. Freud
believed that during this stage, the males awareness of his sexual organs leads him to subconsciously
desire his mother. In addition, the male child grows envious and resentful of his father and desires to
replace him as a desire for his mother's love. This is called the Oedipus Complex. The females desires just
the opposite and wishes to be the desire of her father's affection and begins to resent the mother. This is
called the Electra Complex. Eventually however, both boys and girls will grow out of these complex and
begin to identify the parent of the same sex.
Latency Stage
Six-Eleven years

This period is characterized by indifference to sexually related matters. During this stage, the child's
identification with the parent of the same sex becomes a lot stronger. They begin to imitate his/her behavior
such as: speech, gestures, mannerisms, beliefs, and value systems. Not only do they imitate the parent
but they also start to integrate values and beliefs of their culture, which begins to develop their super ego.
The child also comes to distinguish between both unacceptable and acceptable behavior. This period is
also characterized by the fact that children are associating with playmates of the same sex. Boys prefer
the company of boys, and girls prefer the company of girls. And both sexes tend to avoid one another.
Genital Stage
Elven-Eighteen years

This stage is the longest of the stages, lasting up to seven years. This stage is similar to the anal stage
because there is a renewed interest and pleasure that can be derived from excretory activity. At the very
beginning of this stage, the individual begins to engage in association with memento of the same sex,
just like the latency stage. However, these are stronger in this stage and Freud believed that they are
homosexual in nature, even though homosexual activity may not take place. As this stage progresses
homosexual tendencies are replaced by heterosexual ones. And even later in this stage, the child will make
sexual relations with a member of the opposite sex. At this time, the superego goes under development and
gets more flexible. They start to adopt rules in the literal sense, and they start to realize that some rules
are less vital than the others. They will accept rules and norms and make exceptions to others.